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00:00 Intro,
01:00 Thermal & Convective Turbulence
02:42 Wake-Turbulence
03:51 Mechanical Turbulence
04:39 Temperature Inversion Turbulence
05:20 Self-Induced Turbulence
06:30 Frontal Turbulence
07:06 Mountain Wave Turbulence
07:44 Thunderstorm Turbulence
08:35 Clear Air Turbulence
09:22 How do pilots and cabin crew deal with turbulence
13:23 Outro

Dear friends and followers, welcome back to my channel!
(article by the National Geographic)
Everyone has a story about hitting a rough patch of air, those hair-raising moments when suddenly more than the plane is flying. Bellies drop, drinks slop, and people caught in the aisle lurch against seats. In rare cases, it can even mean more than bumps or bruises.

In air travel, turbulence is a certainty and a major source of flight anxiety for flyers of all stripes. But understanding what causes turbulence, where it occurs, and the high-tech tools pilots use to make air travel safer and more comfortable may help settle even the most anxious flyer’s nerves.

What is turbulence?
The definition of turbulence is fairly straightforward: chaotic and capricious eddies of air, disturbed from a calmer state by various forces. If you’ve ever watched a placid thread of rising smoke break up into ever more disorganized swirls, you’ve witnessed turbulence.

Rough air happens everywhere, from ground level to far above cruising altitude. But the most common turbulence experienced by flyers has three common causes: mountains, jet streams, and storms.

Just as ocean waves break on a beach, air also forms waves as it encounters mountains. While some air passes smoothly over and onward, some air masses crowd against the mountains themselves, left with nowhere to go but up. These “mountain waves” can propagate as wide, gentle oscillations into the atmosphere, but they can also break up into many tumultuous currents, which we experience as turbulence.

Disorderly air associated with jet streams—the narrow, meandering bands of swift winds located near the poles—is caused by differences in wind velocities as an aircraft moves away from regions of maximum wind speeds. The decelerating winds create shear regions that are prone to turbulence.

And though it’s easy to understand turbulence created by thunderstorms, a relatively new discovery by researchers is that storms can generate bumpy conditions in faraway skies. The rapid growth of storm clouds pushes air away, generating waves in the atmosphere that can break up into turbulence hundreds to even thousands of miles away, says Robert Sharman, a turbulence researcher at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).

Each of these scenarios can cause “clear air turbulence,” or CAT, the least predictable or observable type of disturbance. CAT is often the culprit behind moderate to severe injuries, as it can occur so suddenly that flight crew don’t have time to instruct passengers to buckle up. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, 524 passengers and crew were reported injured by turbulence between 2002 and 2017.

Thank you very much for your time! I hope you enjoy this video!
Wishing you all the best!

Your “Captain” Joe

Big thank you to all other youtubers who provided me with the video material to create this video. Your content is highly appreciated. Please follow their channels:
@Daily Content
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@doc7austin’s DreamlinerCentral
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@Bruno Vassel
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@nonstop dan
@A Bit Of Everything
@Michel Krijnen
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@ARM Climate Research Facility


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